Determination of foot-and-mouth disease freedom and associated implications on u.s. trade
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)a devastating disease of livestockhas not occurred in the United States since 1929. However, it remains a concern due to the magnitude and highly mobile nature of domestic and international agricultural trade. An outbreak of FMD in the United States would significantly impact food security and the economy for years to come. International recognition of freedom from FMD is therefore highly valued and sought after. Internationally, FMD-freedom is determined by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and is dependent on many factors. The United States similarly evaluates disease freedom and makes determinations that often align with the OIE but at times also diverge. This paper seeks to examine how the OIE and United States evaluate and determine FMD freedom, time to regain freedom in previously free countries, and the relationship between FMD-freedom and trade. The U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, the U.S. Federal Register and key texts of the OIE were examined for disease freedom recognition procedures and country experiences. U.S. import data from the Global Agricultural Trade System was analyzed for compliance with U.S. regulations. Average time to regain FMD-freedom from the OIE is 274 days and from the United States, 398.5 days. This time is significantly lengthened by the use of emergency vaccination. Preliminary U.S. import data suggest that fresh, unprocessed, red meat is being or has been recently imported from non-free countries. More research is being conducted on the validity and implications of these preliminary results.
Public health or related laws, regulations, standards, or guidelines
Explain the U.S. and OIE processes for recognizing freedom of disease from foot-and-mouth disease.
Define the relationship between foot-and-mouth disease freedom and trade.
Identify areas where the stated objectives of U.S. import rules and regulations deviate from reality.
Keyword(s): Animals and Public Health, Food Security
Presenting author's disclosure statement:
Qualified on the content I am responsible for because: I support the work of the National Center for Animal Health Emergency Management where foot-and-mouth disease policy is a primary focus. I have previously co-authored a paper on the evolution of foot-and-mouth disease policy in the United States throughout the 20th Century.
Any relevant financial relationships? No
I agree to comply with the American Public Health Association Conflict of Interest and Commercial Support Guidelines,
and to disclose to the participants any off-label or experimental uses of a commercial product or service discussed
in my presentation.