Alcohol policies in low- and middle-income countries: Do they work?
Methods: Alcohol policy data compiled by the World Health Organization and individual-level alcohol consumption data collected in 15 LMICs in the Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS) study were used. Using multi-level modeling, we investigated whether alcohol consumption in LMICs was inversely associated with more restrictive alcohol policies in four policy domains.
Results: Alcohol policies regulating the physical availability of alcohol, particularly those concerning business hours or involving a government monopoly or licensing system for off-premise alcohol retail sales, were the most consistent predictors of alcohol consumption in LMICs. The high level of aggregate relative alcohol prices was also inversely associated with all drinking outcomes. Restrictions on alcohol advertising were inversely associated with three outcomes, current drinking, usual frequency and total drinking volume. Restrictions on motor vehicles operation were associated only with current drinking in the opposite direction than hypothesized.
Conclusions: Some alcohol policies found effective in HICs, particularly those that regulate the physical availability of alcohol, may also work in LMICs. Public health infrastructures to develop and implement comprehensive alcohol policies in LMICs are needed.
Learning Areas:Public health or related public policy
Describe what specific policies might be effective in low- and middle-income policies.
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use, International Public Health
Qualified on the content I am responsible for because: I have been the principal investigator of numerous grants and am Center Director for the NIAAA-supported P50 'Epidemiology of Alcohol Problems'. Furthermore I am a Co-I for the 38-cpountry GENACIS project on which this study was based, and serve on the project's steering committee. I am a coauthor of the paper based on this abstract.
Any relevant financial relationships? No
I agree to comply with the American Public Health Association Conflict of Interest and Commercial Support Guidelines, and to disclose to the participants any off-label or experimental uses of a commercial product or service discussed in my presentation.